Patogenesa Dan Pemilihan Terapi Hemorrhoid

Taufik Sudirman


Therapy of hemorrhoids ranges from dietary and lifestyle modification to  surgery, depending on degree and severity of symtoms. While debate continues as to which is the best surgical method for the therapy of hemorrhoids, none of the currently available surgical methods approach the ideal surgical option, which is one that effective while being safe and painless. In reality, the less painful the procedure, the more likely it is to be associated with recurrence post-op. A fuller understanding of the pathophysiology will help to make choices.

Keywords: hemorrhoids, pathophysiology, therapy.



Johanson JF, Sonnenberg A. The prevalence of hemorrhoids and chronic constipation. An epidemiologic study. Gastroenterology. 1990;98(2):380-6.

Riss S, Weiser FA, Schwameis K, Riss T, Mittlbock M, Steiner G, et al. The prevalence of hemorrhoids in adults. International journal of colorectal disease. 2012;27(2):215-20.

Aigner F, Gruber H, Conrad F, Eder J, Wedel T, Zelger B, et al. Revised morphology and hemodynamics of the anorectal vascular plexus: impact on the course of hemorrhoidal disease. International journal of colorectal disease. 2009;24(1):105-13.

Lohsiriwat V. Hemorrhoids: from basic pathophysiology to clinical management. World journal of gastroenterology. 2012;18(17):2009-17.

Ganz RA. The evaluation and treatment of hemorrhoids: a guide for the gastroenterologist. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. 2013;11(6):593-603.

Alonso-Coello P, Zhou Q, Martinez-Zapata MJ, Mills E, Heels-Ansdell D, Johanson JF, et al. Meta-analysis of flavonoids for the treatment of haemorrhoids. The British journal of surgery. 2006;93(8):909-20.

Shaikh AR, Dalwani AG, Soomro N. An evaluation of Milligan-Morgan and Ferguson procedures for haemorrhoidectomy at Liaquat University Hospital Jamshoro, Hyderabad, Pakistan. Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2013;29(1):122-7.

Agbo SP. Surgical management of hemorrhoids. Journal of surgical technique and case report. 2011;3(2):68-75.

Yeo D, Tan KY. Hemorrhoidectomy - making sense of the surgical options. World journal of gastroenterology. 2014;20(45):16976-83.

Amin J, Amin A, Denys G, Meldrum A. Stapled haemorrhoidopexy-Complications and patient statisfaction. Open Journal of Gastroenterology, 2012,2,109-112.

Tjandra JJ, Chan MK. Systematic review on the procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids (stapled hemorrhoidopexy). Diseases of the colon and rectum. 2007;50(6):878-92.

Jayaraman S, Colquhoun PH, Malthaner RA. Stapled hemorrhoidopexy is associated with a higher long-term recurrence rate of internal hemorrhoids compared with conventional excisional hemorrhoid surgery. Diseases of the colon and rectum. 2007;50(9):1297-305.

Walega P, Romaniszyn M, Kenig J, Herman R, Nowak W. Doppler-guided hemorrhoid artery ligation with Recto-Anal-Repair modification: functional evaluation and safety assessment of a new minimally invasive method of treatment of advanced hemorrhoidal disease. TheScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:324040.

Roka S, Gold D, Walega P, Lancee S, Zagriadsky E, Testa A, et al. DG-RAR for the treatment of symptomatic grade III and grade IV haemorrhoids: a 12-month multi-centre, prospective observational study. European surgery : ACA : Acta chirurgica Austriaca. 2013;45(1):26-30.

Hoyuela C, Carvajal F, Juvany M, Troyano D, Trias M, Martrat A, et al. HAL-RAR (Doppler guided haemorrhoid artery ligation with recto-anal repair) is a safe and effective procedure for haemorrhoids. Results of a prospective study after two-years follow-up. International journal of surgery. 2016;28:39-44.

Scheyer M, Antonietti E, Rollinger G, Lancee S, Pokorny H. Hemorrhoidal artery ligation (HAL) and rectoanal repair (RAR): retrospective analysis of 408 patients in a single center. Techniques in coloproctology. 2015;19(1):5-9.

MacRae HM, McLeod RS. Comparison of Hemorrhoidal Treatments: A Meta-Analysis. Dis Rectum 1995;38:687-94.

Chen JS, You JF. Current status of surgical treatment for hemorrhoids--systematic review and meta-analysis. Chang Gung medical journal. 2010;33(5):488-5


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Taufik Sudirman

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

favicon Fakultas Kedokteran | Universitas Pelita Harapan | Lippo Karawaci, Tangerang, Indonesia, 15811