R. Gratikana Ningrat, Henry Soelistyo Budi


So far, technological advances have encouraged the formation of new patterns of life, with creative and innovative ideas, concepts, and thoughts. In the music industry, for example, various digital media and virtual concert venues have developed as a form of breakthrough in dealing with various obstacles due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Virtual concerts are interesting to study because they allow the Author to announce his creation for the first time as the basis for the existence of a Copyright and perform musical performances, including choreographed works. However, on the other hand, it eases other people to fix or record the virtual concert without permission, then distribute it for commercial purposes. In this regard, normatively, the Copyright Law has norms to prohibit such illegal acts. Having said this, this research is addressed to examine how the regulation and implementation of the Copyright Law is for the choreographic works performed in Virtual Music Concerts. The type of research utilizes normative juridical with empirical juridical support. In the perspective of legal certainty, the results of the study conclude that choreographic works do not include works that are managed by the National Collective Management Organization’s potential royalty revenue, as is the case with song and/or musical creations. Therefore, to achieve legal certainty in copyright protection, the authority of the National Collective Management Organization needs to be broadened to include the management of royalties for the use of choreographic works for commercial purposes which has implications for the revision of the Copyright Law and Government Regulation No. 56/2021.


Copyright; Virtual Concerts; Royalties


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Laws and Regulations

Law Number 11 Year 2008 concerning Information and Electronic Transactions.

Law Number 28 Year 2014 concerning Copyrights.

Law Number 19 Year 2016 concerning Amendments to Law Number 11 Year 2008 concerning Information and Electronic Transactions.

Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 56 Year 2021 concerning Management of Song and/or Music Copyright Royalties.

Joint Regulation of the Minister of Law and Human Rights and the Minister of Communication and Information Number 14 of 2015 and Number 26 of 2015 concerning Implementation of Content Closure and/or or User Access Rights Violation of Copyright and/or Related Rights in Electronic Systems.

National Collective Management Organization Decision Number: 20160512KM/LMKN-Pleno/Tarif Royalti/2016 concerning Ratification of Royalty Rates for Music Concerts.

Other Regulation

South Korea Copyright Act.


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Panjaitan, Hulman, and Wetmen Sinaga. Performing Right Hak Cipta atas Karya Musik & Lagu serta Aspek Hukumnya (Edisi Revisi). Jakarta: UKI PRESS, 2017.

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Personal Communications

Interview with Ellora Sukardi, lecturer at the Faculty of Law, Universitas Pelita Harapan. November 8, 2021.

Interview with Sahat Sidabukke, advocate and legal consultant at Sidabukke & Partners. November 13, 2021.


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