KONSTRUKSI GENDER DALAM FILM (ANALISA FEMINISME LIBERAL FILM ALFRED HITCHCOCK PERIODE 1950-AN)

Pandu Dewa Nata

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Konsep gender memiliki fokus pada perbedaan peran di dalam kehidupan sosial antara laki-laki dengan perempuan. Perbedaan peran ini merupakan hasil konstruksi yang berasal dari berbagai agen sosial. Film merupakan salah satu agen sosial yang berperan dalam melakukan konstruksi gender di dalam kehidupan masyarakat. Peran film sebagai agen pelaku konstruksi sosial mengalami perkembangan pada periode 1950-an. Salah satu konstruksi yang dibangun melalui film adalah feminisme liberal di dalam film-film Alfred Hitchcock pada periode 1950-an. Konstruksi feminisme liberal yang digambarkan oleh Alfred Hitchcock melalui film-filmnya pada tahun 1950-an serta perubahan nilai feminisme liberal melalui ciri khas karakter perempuan merupakan permasalahan utama yang akan dibahas di dalam penelitian ini.
Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dan metode analisis isi (content analysis) semiotikadari Roland Barthes. Pengumpulan data primer dilakukan dengan melakukan observasi (menonton) lima film Alfred Hitchcock pada peridoe 1950-an. Data sekunder didapatkan dari berbagai hasil penelitian dan jurnal yang terkait.
Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Hitchcock mengkonstruksikan feminisme liberal sebagai kemampuan perempuan untuk menjadi pelaku voyeurism, objek seksualitas, dan manifestasi maskulinitas laki-laki. Selanjutnya, berdasarkan konstruksi feminisme liberal ini, maka Hitchcock melakukan perombakan terhadap nilai-nilai feminisme yang dipahami pada periode 1950-an.
Kata kunci: Gender, konstruksi sosial, feminsime liberal, film, Alfred Hitchcock, semotika, Roland Barthes, voyeurism, objek seksualitas, maskulinitas.

Kata kunci: Gender, konstruksi sosial, feminsime liberal, film, Alfred Hitchcock, semotika, Roland Barthes, voyeurism, objek seksualitas, maskulinitas.

Abstract
Gender focusses toward the role-differences between man and woman in the social life. These differences is a construction-based result carried out by social agent. Film is one of the social agent which carries out the gender construction in society. The role of film as a social-construction agent was developing in 1950’s. One of the construction carried out by film is a liberal feminism depicted in Alfred Hitchcock’s film in 1950’s. The construction of liberal feminism inside 1950’s Hitchcock films and the debunking of liberal feminism through the woman’s character traits are the two important problems addressed and analysed in this research.
This theses uses the qualitative approach and semiotics research method of Roland Barthes. The primary data are obtained through watching the five of Hitchcock’s films released in 1950’s. The next step, every related scene that indicates the construction of liberal feminism will be Secondary data are obtained from previous research findings and related scientific journal.
The result of this research shows that Hitchcock constructs the liberal feminism as the ability of women to become the perpetrator of voyeurism, the sexual object, and the manifestation of men’s masculinity. Based on this construction, it can be inferred that Hitchcock debunks the previous views regarding the liberal feminism circulated in 1950’s.

Key words: Gender, social construction, liberal feminism, film, Alfred Hitchcock,semiotics of Roland Barthes, , voyeurism, sexual object, masculinity.

 


Keywords


Gender, konstruksi sosial, feminsime liberal, film, Alfred Hitchcock, semotika, Roland Barthes; voyeurism; objek seksualitas; maskulinitas

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